Neuromuscular Disorders arise due to any abnormal activity among the nerves that control the action of voluntary muscular movement in the body. Voluntary muscles are those whose action is defined by a thought of the individual, i.e. their movement is regulated via the brain and spinal cord. The simplest example of voluntary muscular action is the movement of the legs and arms. On the other hand, blinking of the eye involves many involuntary muscles, i.e. their action is partially or negligibly controlled in a conscious manner. The nerve cells or neurons are responsible for relaying the message to the voluntary muscles.

These messages are the thought process or the signals that are created from various parts of the brain and then transmitted via a complex network that involves the spinal cord, nerve plexuses and innumerable nerves. If the neurons don’t function properly or if their action is impaired due to any disease or even natural reasons such as old age, the neural pathway, i.e. the network across which the signals are transmitted, is disturbed.

This is when Neurological Disorders surface, i.e. the muscles started weakening and wasting and the affected individual’s range-of-movement becomes uncoordinated. This is why unusual muscular activity in the form of pains, aches, twitching, cramping along with joint stiffness and jerky movements are the primary indicators of Neurological Disorders. Very rarely, Neurological Disorders affect a small section of the involuntary muscles also such as those involved in the pumping of the heart or those involved in swallowing of food. The most typical kinds of Neuromuscular Disorders have been listed below:

  1. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis or ALS is regarded as a typical example of Neurological Disorder wherein nervous system develops problems due to a disease that starts to affect the nerve cells. The neurons in the brain and spinal cord are slowly rendered inactive or partially efficient, derailing how messages from the brain and spinal cord are communicated to the voluntary muscles. Thus, the affected individual starts to lose his muscular coordination and gradually, the movement of the entire body is compromised. ALS also includes an indirect action on the chest muscles due to which breathing becomes labored. This is why many people suffering from ALS are known to suffer from extreme respiratory failure.
  2. Multiple Sclerosis
    Multiple sclerosis or MS is also the result of a nervous system disease that impairs the functioning of the brain and spinal cord. This disease is very selective in the kind of damage it induces, i.e. it causes uncontrolled disintegration of the myelin sheath that covers the neurons. This sheath is the protective coating that is required for insulating the nerve cells. This sheath also defines the manner in which the signals emanating from the brain or spinal cord are transmitted across the neurons.
  3. Muscular Dystrophy
    Muscular Dystrophy or MD is considered the most typical of neurological disorders since it causes widespread and easily-visible muscular damage. MD is actually not a single disorder.. It refers to nearly 30 genetic diseases whose origins are still not fully understood. Due to this condition, the patient suffers from extreme muscle weakness and soon, muscle loss surfaces which can render the patient bed-ridden. Many forms of MD have been reported. Some surface during infancy and most are diagnosed in early childhood. A few types of MD appear around the middle age. Every type of MD differs in the kind of dystrophy or muscular damage it induces. Usually, patients suffering from MD find it very hard to walk.
  4. Myasthenia Gravis
    Myasthenia Gravis is a typical and one of the better understood types of neurological disorders. This condition usually involves the muscles in and around the head. This is why twitching eye and impaired eyelid movement are typical indicators of Myasthenia Gravis apart from unusual, uncontrolled facial expressions and problems in swallowing.
  5. Spinal Muscular Atrophy
    This is another genetic neurological disorder that doesn’t have a defined myopathy. Here, the motor neurons of the spinal cord are affected. These are the most critical neurons involved in communicating with the voluntary muscles. Eventually, the neurons begin to disintegrate or lose their transmittable ability, rendering them incapable of defining the pathway for the voluntary muscles. Labored breathing and loss of coordinated head/neck movement are typical indicators of SMA.